Posts Tagged ‘Principal Register’

The Difference Between the Principal Register and the Supplemental Register

Tuesday, January 14th, 2020

There are two separate and distinct federal trademark registers: the Principal Register and the Supplemental Register.

Fanciful, arbitrary, suggestive marks and marks that have become distinctive through exclusive and continuous use in commerce for more than five years are eligible for registration on the Principal Register.  Once a mark is on the Principal Register, it is afforded the full range of benefits and protections under the Lanham Act. A successfully registered mark is prima facie evidence of registrant’s ownership and exclusive nationwide right to use the registered mark in connection with the specified goods or services. 15 U.S.C. § 1057(b).  The registration provides constructive notice of a claim of ownership which means that an opposing litigant cannot raise a defense of good-faith adoption against a mark on the Principal Registration. 15 U.S.C. § 1057(c) and 15 U.S.C. § 1072.  Once a mark on the Principal Register has been in continuous use in commerce for five years, it may become incontestable and immune from certain attacks and defenses. 15 U.S.C. § 1065.  In a successful infringement action, the registrant may seek increased statutory damages.  15 U.S.C. § 1117 and 18 U.S.C. § 2320.  Finally, marks registered on the Principal Register can be used to stop the importation of infringing goods or services into the United States. 15 U.S.C. § 1124. There are additional benefits to registration on the Principal Register which are held in common with marks on the Supplemental Register.

The Supplemental Register is often an option for weak marks that can potentially identify goods or services from a particular source. These are the marks that are already in use in commerce and have been refused registration on the Principal Register because they are merely descriptive, deceptively misdescriptive, primarily geographically descriptive or primarily merely a surname. The Supplemental Register is preferential to merely continued common law use because it affords certain protections.  Marks on either the Principal Register or on the Supplemental Register may give notice of federal registration by using the encircled “R;” the registrants have the right to assert claims of infringement of a registered mark in federal court; the registration provides notice to those conducting clearance searches; the registration bars registration of subsequently filed confusingly similar marks and the registration may serve as the basis for foreign filing.

However, marks on the Supplemental Register do not enjoy a presumption of validity, ownership and exclusive right to use the mark, they may not be recorded with Customs to prevent importation of counterfeits and they may not become incontestable after five years of exclusive and continuous use.  After five years of exclusive and continuous use in commerce, a Supplemental Register registrant is eligible to file for registration of his/her mark on the Principal Register, only if the mark has acquired a secondary meaning. Only if the mark has become distinctive in connection with the goods or services will registration on the Principal Register be allowed.

When registration is not available on the Principal Register, trademark owners should explore the option of Supplemental Registration because it affords many advantages over common law use.

 

 

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